mate yerba co to znaczy
Co znaczy Yerba Mate. Czym jest Paragwaju i Urugwaju.Syria i Liban.na głowę jednego mieszkańca.

Czy pomocne?

Definicja Yerba Mate

Definicja z ang. yerba Mate, z niem. Yerba Mate.

Co to znaczy: Yerba mate jest spożywana raczej w Argentynie, Brazylii, Paragwaju i Urugwaju.Syria i Liban.na głowę jednego mieszkańca Argentyny rocznie przypada prawie 7 kilogramów mate.złożona jest z wysuszonych, lekko wyprażonych, rozdrobnionych liści ostrokrzewu paragwajskiego (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire).Ostrokrzew paragwajski, Ilex paraguariensis, to drzewo z rodziny ostrokrzewowatych (Aquifoliaceae). W stanie naturalnym w ciągu 25 lat osiąga do 15 m wysokości, uprawiane — 3–6 m. Kwitnie od października do grudnia. Liście są podłużne, zimozielone i błyszczące, do 5 cm długości, na brzegach falisto karbowane; drobne, żółtawe, 4-krotne kwiaty są skupione w pęczkach wyrastających z kątów liści; owoc — fioletowoczerwony pestkowiec z kilkoma nasionami. Region występowania, zarówno naturalnych jak i uprawianych drzew, ogranicza się do Ameryki Południowej, w strefie między Oceanem Atlantyckim i rzeką Paragwaj i między 18°S i 30°S. Liście zawierają kofeinę i teobrominę, alkaloidy o działaniu pobudzającym układ nerwowy. http://www.ushuaia.pl/yerba/co
<img src="gfx/bombilla.jpg">
<img src="gfx/galleta.jpg">
<img src="gfx/yerba1.jpg">
<img src="gfx/yerba2.jpg">
<img src="gfx/yerba3.jpg">
Jaką mate kupić?
Radzę kupić tradycyjną mate z tykwy, bo dobrze przechodzi smakiem yerby i z czasem dojrzewa. Jedyną zaletą metalowej mate to jest, iż dobrze sprawdza się w podróży. Ja jednak wolę tykwę.
Nową tykwę trzeba odpowiednio przygotować. Najpierw napełnia się ją yerbą, potem zalewa gorącą wodą i pozostawia na jeden dzień. Następnie należy wyrzucić zawartość, opłukać mate i wyskrobać resztki włókien ze ścianek tykwy. Potem trzeba powtórzyć cały mechanizm, a więc jeszcze raz napełnić yerbą, zalewać wrzątkiem i odstawić naczynie na jeden dzień.
Gdy już uzależnimy się od tego energetyzującego napoju, warto pomyśleć o termosie. W Ameryce wytwarzane są termosy do mate wyposażone w specjalną rurkę do nalewania wody. Jednak zwykły termos także świetnie nadaje się do tego celu. Termos szczególnie przydatny jest w momencie podróży, a widok ludzi z termosem w ręku nie jest niczym niezwykłym na ulicach Buenos Aires czy Montevideo.
Jak przygotować?
Gotujemy wodę. Trzeba pamiętać, aby nie wrzała. Woda do mate powinna mieć ok. 70°C. Leniwe sączenie mate jest czymś tak oczywistym w miastach na północy Argentyny, iż na ulicach stoją darmowe dystrybutory z gorącą wodą. Nieodzownym elementem takiego dystrybutora jest termometr wskazujący temperaturę wody: zbyt gorąca woda parzy gdyż liście i skutkuje, iż mate jest wodnista i pozbawiona smaku.
Napełniamy mate w 3/4 objętości, zatykamy otwór ręką i odwracamy do góry dnem, lekko potrząsając. Ponownie odwracamy mate tak, aby większość liści zgromadziła się z jednej strony tykwy. Wpychamy głęboko bombille tam, gdzie jest mniej liści. Potem bombilli już nie ruszamy. Następnie nalewamy gorącą wodę, najlepiej powoli po bombilli. Woda powinna przykryć górny poziom liści. Czekamy chwilę, aż yerba zaparzy się. I wreszcie pijemy.
Niektórzy piją mate z cukrem. W takim przypadku przed każdą dolewką wsypujemy trochę cukru. Trzeba jednak pamiętać, iż tykwa przeznaczona do picia gorzkiej mate nie powinna być używana do picia osłodzonego napoju.
Yerba mate można także zalewać zimną wodą i pić z dodatkiem lodu i innych ziół. Taki napój nazywa się tereré i jest dostępny w Paragwaju.
Jak pić?
Picie mate to nie tylko zaspokajanie pragnienia, lecz cały ceremoniał. Porównanie do palenia fajki pokoju nie jest bardzo przesadzone. Mate pije się w gronie znajomych, a zaproszenie do ceremonii jest słowem akceptacji.
Mistrzem ceremonii jest zazwyczaj gospodarz. To on przygotowuje mate, zalewa ją wodą i wedle obowiązującym zwyczajem pije jako pierwszy. Pije do momentu, aż poprzez bombille przechodzi powietrze. Notabene dźwięk siorbania jest w tym przypadku mile widziany. Następnie ponownie zalewa yerbę i podaje mate pierwszemu z pijących. wedle zasadami południowoamerykańskiego savoir-vivre'u bombilla powinna być zwrócona w stronę tej osoby. Wypija ona wszystko do dna, na co wskazuje siorbanie, i zwraca naczynie gospodarzowi, nie dziękując. Podziękowanie znaczy, iż nie mamy już ochoty na więcej i gospodarz pominie nas w następnej kolejce. Po kolei piją wszyscy uczestnicy spotkania. Potem gospodarz znów podaje mate pierwszemu z gości, następuje następna rundka i tak w kółko.
Kiedy napar traci smak, gospodarz wyrzuca zawartość mate (pomagając sobie bombillą) i napełnia ponownie. Ceremonia trwa tak długo, dopóki nie podziękuje ostatni z pijących. Jednak yerba nie jest celem samym w sobie spotkania towarzyskiego, a jedynie przyjemnym elementem towarzyszącym.
Od czasu do czasu bombilla zatyka się. Niektórzy pocierają wtedy ręką dno mate i rurka odtyka się. Nie wiem jak miałoby to działać, lecz faktycznie coś w tym jest.
W ogóle w mate jest coś magicznego. Argentyńczycy mówią, iż do mate trzeba mieć niezłą rękę. I rzeczywiście, są osoby, którym dobra mate nigdy nie wychodzi.
Yerba Mate, or Mate as it is often called, is a South American herb that has won many admirers in wide-ranging parts of the world.
In the search for a natural stimulant devoid of side effects and toxicity, Mate currently holds the most hope.
An invigorator of the mind and body, a natural source of nutrition, and a health promoter par excellence, Mate deserves the attention of every person interested in optimum health. Yerba Mate was introduced to colonizing and modern civilizations aby the primitive Guarani Indians of Paraguay and Argentina.
It has seemingly always been the most common ingredient in household cures of the Guarani.
In modern Argentina and Paraguay, however, Mate tea has become almost pathologically ritualized in a manner reminiscent of coffee and tea abuse in Western and Eastern countries. Among the native Guarani, on the other hand, the natural use of Mate for healthful purposes has persisted.
They use it to boost immunity, cleanse and detoxify the blood, tone the nervous mechanizm, restore youthful hair color, retard aging, combat fatigue, stimulate the mind, control the appetite, reduce the effects of debilitating disease, reduce stress, and eliminate insomnia.
Mate (flex paraguariensis) is an evergreen member of the holly family.
It grows wild in Argentina, Chile, Peru, and Brazil, but is most abundant in Paraguay where it is also cultivated. The plant is classified vaguely, according to Western herbal medicine, as aromatic, stimulant, bitter, aperient (laxative), astringent, diuretic, purgative, sudorific (sweat inducing), and febrifuge (fever reducing).
Mate contains numerous vitamins and minerals.
There is the usual array of resins, fiber, volatile oil, and tannins that characterize many plant substances.
And there is also carotene; vitamins A. C, E, B-1, B-2 and B-complex; riboflavin; nicotinic acid; pantothenic acid; biotin; magnesium; calcium; iron; sodium; potassium; manganese; silicon; phosphates; sulfur; hydrochloric acid; chlorophyll; choline; and inositol. In 1964 one group of investigators from the Pasteur Institute and the Paris Scientific Society concluded that Mate contains practically all of the vitamins necessary to sustain life.
In addition to the regular nutrients, Mate contains a substance belonging to a specialized class of chemical compounds called xanthines.
Though only small amounts of these substances occur in Mate, their presence has generated a huge amount of attention.
The primary xanthine in Yerba Mate is called Mateine.
The substance probably contributes little, if anything, to the overall activity of the plant, but has drawn a disproportionate share of speculation. Some xanthines are obviously less desirable, such as caffeine. Others, such as theophylline and theobromine, have specialized action and a characteristic set of side effects.
Although the xanthines have similar chemistries, each has a unique set of properties. Researchers at the Free Hygienic Institute of Hamburg, Germany, concluded that even if there were caffeine in Mate, the amount would be so tiny that it would take 100 tea bags of Mate in a 6-ounce cup of water to equal the caffeine in a 6-ounce serving of regular coffee. Consequently, the active principle in Yerba Mate is not caffeine!
There is only one effect that seems to be shared aby all xanthines:
smooth muscle relaxation. It is this action that makes them (with the exception of caffeine, in which smooth muscle relaxant effects are diminished aby other side effects) good clinical dilators of the bronchi and hence useful in the treatment of asthma.
Mateine appears, then, to possess the best combination of xanthine properties possible. For example, like other xanthines, it stimulates the central nervous mechanizm; but unlike most, it is not habituating or addicting.
Likewise, unlike caffeine, it induces better, not worse, attributes of sleep.
It is a mild, not a strong, diuretic, as are many xanthines. It relaxes peripheral blood vessels, thereby reducing blood pressure, without the strong effects on the medulla oblongata (end part of the brain connecting to the spine) and heart exhibited aby some xanthines.
We also know that it improves psychomotor performance without the typical xanthine-induced depressant after effects.
Dr. Jose Martin, Director of the National Institute of Technology in Paraguay, writes, "New research and better technology have shown that while Mateine has a chemical constituency similar to caffeine, the molecular binding is different. Mateine has none of the ill effects of caffeine." And Horacio Conesa, professor at the University of Buenos Aires Medical School, states, "There is not a single medical contraindication" for ingesting Mate.
Clinical studies show, in fact, that even individuals with caffeine sensitivities can ingest Mate without adverse reactions.
GASTROINTESTINAL PROPERTIES
Perhaps the main area to benefit from Mate is the gastrointestinal tract.
Reported effects range from immediate improvement in digestion to the ability to repair damaged and diseased gastrointestinal tissues. Constipation, acute or chronic, can easily be overcome through the use of Mate. Mate appears to work mainly aby softening the fecal mass, but it also appears to stimulate normal movement of the intestines to some degree.
EFFECTS ON THE NERVOUS mechanizm
Better than any other xanthine alkaloid, Mate has the ability to increase mental alertness and acuity and to do it without any side effects such as nervousness and jitters.
It seems to act like a tonic, stimulating a weakened and depressed nervous mechanizm and sedating an overexcited one. Our knowledge of Mate's effects is currently limited to observations of behavior changes such as more energy and vitality; better ability to concentrate; less nervousness, agitation, and anxiety; and increased resistance to both physical and mental fatigue.
Improvement in mood, especially in cases of depression, often follows drinking the tea.
This may be a direct or indirect result of increased energy.
One of the remarkable aspects of Mate is that it does not interfere with sleep cycles; in fact, it has a tendency to balance the cycles, inducing more rapid eye movement (REM) sleep when necessary, or increasing the amount of time spent in delta states (deep sleep).
CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS
Heart Ailments of all kinds have been treated or prevented through Yerba Mate use. Yerba Mate supplies many of the nutrients required aby the heart for growth and repair.
In addition, it increases the supply of oxygen to the heart, especially during periods of stress or exercise. Mate has become a favorite of body builders and anyone interested in the health benefits of exercise.
The metabolic effects of Mate appear to include the ability to maintain aerobic glycolysis (breakdown of carbohydrates) during exercise for longer periods of time.
This results in burning more calories, increasing cardiac efficiency, and delaying anaerobic glycolysis and the resulting buildup of lactic acid during exercise.
Reports of Mate reducing blood pressure are not uncommon.
EFFECTS ON THE IMMUNE mechanizm
A consistent observation in most South American literature on Mate is that it increases the immune response of the body, stimulating natural resistance to disease.
This results in a nourishing and strengthening effect on the ill person, both during the course of the illness and during convalescence, sometimes dramatically accelerating recovery times.
Exact mechanisms of Mate's action have not been worked out, but they involve both a direct action against infectious organisms, and an effect on overall resistance to disease.
The nutritional content of the plant probably plays a major role here, but it is also probable that other constituents contribute to the action aby stimulating the activity of white blood cells.
NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES
The interaction of the many nutrients in Mate have never been systematically studied. But the stories surrounding the nutritional application of Mate tea are nothing short of amazing.
Mate is often used as a staple food, sometimes substituting for such important foods as bread and vegetables.
It easily eliminates the sensation of hunger and can impart as much invigoration as a full meal, according to the well-known Chilean herbalists J. Zin and R. Weiss.
Peace Corps workers have reported cases in which large groups of natives remain in good health for extended periods of drought and famine, even though they eat only one small meal per day.
How so? aby drinking copious amounts of Yerba Mate tea.
Some natives spend their entire lives on such a diet and live to very advanced ages, sometimes in excess of 100 years. South American governments have adopted the practice of encouraging mothers, especially in the poorer regions, to include Yerba Mate in the diet of their school-age children.
http://www.mundomatero.com/yerba/Chemical-Features.html
Yerba Mate is a tea, and can be used like any other tea.
Its most popular form comes in 500 gram (17.6 oz.) bags of loose-leaf tea that is dried and ground.
In some places it is available in tea bags, called Mate Cocido, but these do not provide the strength and full benefit of the more traditional methods for drinking it.
Yerba Mate (literally, the "Mate Herb") gets its name from the traditional cup (called Mate as well) used to drink it.
This cup, originally a dried and decorated gourd, can be made out of almost anything these days. In South America, where Maté was introduced to the world, Maté is still sipped from the Maté cup using a metal or wood decorative straw & filter called a bombilla.
The modern Maté drinker can choose any number of ways to extract the beneficial tea from the herb. It can be brewed like normal loose-leaf tea and filtered before pouring into a cup.
It can be use in a coffee press, where the herb is infused with hot water, and then the herb is pressed out of the way of the tea.
It can be made into a flavorful iced tea to drink on a hot summer day. It can be made like coffee, in a standard automatic coffee maker (make sure you use a large amount of the herb).
And, if you have a Maté cup and a bombilla, you can follow in the foot steps of the ancients aby sipping Maté the traditional way.
How to prepare a traditional Mate infusion
To prepare the Maté infusion, the dried minced leaves of the Yerba Maté are placed inside the Maté cup and hot water (approx. 70 C) is added (this is called "cebar el Maté").
The infusion is sucked through a metal pipe called "bombilla," which has a strainer at its lower end to prevent the minced leaves from reaching the mouth.
There are as many different techniques to prepare Maté as Maté drinkers, here is a fairly traditional method:
Fill the Maté cup with Yerba Maté up to 3/4 of its capacity.
A variation that will give you more tea per infusion and a less potent taste is to fill the Maté cup only half way, or even a little less than that.
Pour some hot water in until it nearly fills the cup.
Don't worry if some of the leaves remain dry, floating on the top.
They will eventually absorb water in subsequent infusions.
Let it stand a few seconds and replenish with hot water when the previous one is absorbed aby the dry Maté leaves.
When the water is not absorbed anymore, close the bombilla's "mouthpiece" with your thumb and insert it firmly into the Maté.
Some people add sugar and/or some herbs (like mint, for example).
Some replace the water with milk, specially for the children.
You drink and replenish the Maté with hot water many times till the liquid comes out with almost no taste.
The repetitive extraction with hot water seems to be an efficient way of extracting the beneficial properties of the herb.
Enjoy! Although the first taste will be an unusual flavor for newcomers, it is a haunting taste that beckons you back time and time again. It's almost as if the body knows how good Maté is for you and calls out for you to take in more.

Czym jest Yerba Mate znaczenie w Słownik na Y .